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The prostrate is a gland that is found in men only and is located between the penis and the bladder. It surrounds the urethra. The main job of prostrate is to secrete a milky fluid that becomes part of the semen and that nourishes sperm.

Some of the prostrate conditions are

  • Prostatitis
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Prostate cancer
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Causes of prostrate conditions

There are different conditions for different prostrate conditions.

Causes of Prostatitis: Some of the causes of Prostatitis include:

  • Engage in rectal intercourse
  • Have an enlarged prostate
  • Have had a recent bladder infection
  • Have had a medical instrument, such as a urinary cath inserted during medical procedure
  • Have an abnormal urinary tract
  • Autoimmune disease

Causes for enlarged prostate: Though the precise reason for enlarged prostate is not known, the increase in the number of cells lead to enlarged prostrate. A variety of factors may be involved including estrogens, androgens, growth factors and other cell signalling pathways. Normally the size of prostrate is that of a walnut. However, as with age and under the influence of male hormones the prostrate can grow many times its normal size.

Causes of prostate cancer: Some of the main reasons for prostate cancer include:

  • Age: The older a man is higher is the risk of getting prostate cancer. It is very common for those above 50.
  • Genetics: Genetics is certainly an important cause to develop prostrate cancer. If it is there among the immediate family members than it may happen to the patient as well.
  • Sexually transmitted disease
  • Obesity: There is a link between obesity and prostate cancer risk.


  • Medication: As per studies there is a link between anti-inflammatory medicines and prostate cancer risk.
  • Diet and lifestyle: Diet and lifestyle also plays an important role in prostate cancer development.

Signs and Symptoms  

The sign and symptoms for different prostrate conditions differ.

Symptoms of Prostatitis: Many a times you may not have any symptoms of prostatitis. However, sometime you may end up having sudden symptoms such as:

  • Chills and fever
  • Pain or burning during urination
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Frequent urge to urinate

Symptoms of enlarged prostrate can include:

  • A weak or slow urinary stream
  • A feeling of incomplete bladder emptying
  • Urgency to urinate
  • Difficulty starting urination
  • Frequent urination
  • A urinary stream that starts and stops
  • Getting up frequently at night to urinate
  • Straining to urinate
  • Continued dribbling of urine

Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer include:

  • The patient gets up at night more often to urinate
  • The patient urinates more often
  • The patients find it hard to keep urinating once he has started
  • He may find it hard to start urinating
  • Ejaculation may be painful
  • There may be blood in the urine
  • Urination might be painful
  • Achieving or maintaining an erection may be difficult
  • The proximal part of the femur can be painful
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Bone pain, often in the spine, pelvis, or ribs
  • Fecal incontinence

Preventive measures

Prostate cancer prevention: There are several ways to reduce your risk such as:

  • Choose a healthy diet: This includes choosing a low fat diet. Eat more fat from plants than from animals. Increase your intake of fresh fruits and vegetables. Eat fish and reduce the amount of dairy products in your diet.
  • Maintain healthy weight: Men who suffer from obesity have higher chances of prostate cancer. Hence it is important to maintain ideal weight. Talk to your doctor about your diet chart.
  • Exercise all days of the week: those who do exercise have less chance of developing any bladder prostate conditions.
  • Visit doctor regularly: After attaining the age of 45 all men should pay regular visit to doctor to understand about the precaution that he should be taking so that chances of developing bladder prostate condition is rare.

Myths and facts:

Myth: If you have prostate symptoms it can result in cancer

Fact: There are various conditions of the prostate gland that are not cancer such as Prostatitis, Prostatism, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Prostatalgia, Urinary incontinence and so on.

Myth: Prostate cancer mostly occurs in old man.

Fact: Though older men do have a risk of developing prostate cancer, prostate cancer can also develop in those above the age of 40.

Myth: If you face prostate issue you will become impotent.

Fact: Even in the worst case scenario i.e. prostate cancer, very few men face some problems which are temporary and can overcome.

Myth: If bladder prostate conditions are there in the family it will happen to you as well.

Fact: Some lifestyle changes will result in turning the odds in your favour.

Diagnosis of disease

In order to diagnose any disorder you may be referred to an urologist who will make you undergo a comprehensive exam. The examination may include digital rectal exam to evaluate if the prostate gland is tender or large. If still not sure he may suggest prostate fluid analysis, biopsy, transrectal ultrasound or Voiding studies which involves analysis of urine.

Treatment for prostate conditions

Treatments for prostatitis can include:

  • Antibiotics for infectious prostatitis
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs along with warm sitz bath
  • Pain medications
  • Surgical removal of the infected portions of the prostate
  • Muscle relaxants
  • Supportive therapies for chronic prostatitis such as prostate massage, stool softeners and so on
  • For chronic non-infectious prostatitis doctors may recommend alpha blocker drugs which will help in relaxing the muscles of the prostrate and improve urine flow and decrease symptoms.
  • Many people benefit by avoiding spicy foods, acidic drinks or caffeine
  • Activities that aggravate the conditions such as bicycling may need to be eliminated

Treatment for an enlarged prostate

Various treatments such as minimally-invasive office procedures medication and surgery are available to relive enlarged prostate symptoms. The best treatment depends on the severity of your condition, your symptoms and also if you are suffering from any other medical conditions.

The medicines that may be used are:

  • Alpha blockers
  • 5-Alpha reductase inhibitors

Minimally Invasive Treatments for an enlarged prostate will include

  • TUMT (transurethral microwave thermotherapy)
  • TUNA (transurethral radio frequency needle ablation)
  • Prostatic stents

Surgical procedure for enlarged prostrate may include:

  • TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate)
  • TUIP (transurethral incision of the prostate)
  • Laser Surgery
  • Open Prostate Surgery (Prostatectomy)

Treatment for prostate cancer

If the cancer is in its early stage then the following methods may be used to treat it:

  • Radical prostatectomy
  • Brachytherapy
  • Conformal radiotherapy
  • Intensity modulated radiotherapy

In case the cancer has reached advanced level than a combination of radiotherapy and hormone therapy may be used.

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